What types of dental prosthetics are there?

There are various types of dental prosthetics:

Removable partial prosthesis

The bearer can remove it for cleaning; it rests on the mucosa and gums and is equipped with retainer hooks which grip other teeth.

With advances in materials and technologies, this type of prosthesis is becoming ever less common and is normally replaced by dental implants. These implants are fixed and therefore
far more aesthetic and comfortable for the patient.

Removable full prosthesis

This is a complete set of dentures for patients with no teeth and rests exclusively on the mucosa and palate.

As with the preceding prosthesis, these have virtually disappeared. Only in a minimal percentage of cases where implants cannot be inserted will these prostheses be used so the patient can lead a relatively normal life. The problem with this type of prosthesis is their instability when eating or talking which leads to the patient resorting to special ‘glues’ to fix them in place – and all the inconvenience this brings.

Fixed prosthesis on teeth

The teeth are shortened to position crowns and false teeth alongside them.

This is the most interesting option when the tooth is damaged through injury or caries, for example. The restorative clinician prepares the tooth so it can host a cap which will restore its functionality both aesthetically and in terms of chewing. There is a wide range of materials which means many possible options to solve this problem.

Fixed prosthesis on implants

Both for full maxillas which are left toothless and to replace one or more teeth. These teeth are attached to the implants that the surgeon has previously inserted. In order to attach them, the restorative clinician needs to perform various tests in the patient’s mouth to ensure, amongst others, that the colour and shape are correct. As with prostheses on real teeth, crowns on implants offer us a wide range of possibilities in terms of rehabilitation. The specialist’s training will be essential to show the patient the latest advances in the field.

Removable prosthesis supported on mucosa implant

Full set of dentures that adjust to a bar, which in turn is held in place by two or three implants.

This prosthesis is used when the surgeon is obliged to insert few implants in a patient with no teeth – usually the result of a lack of bone. An edentulous (toothless) mouth can be rehabilitated with 4 implants in the upper jaw or with 2 in the lower and the insertion of a prosthesis that covers the whole mouth. This type of prosthesis is fixed on these implants though the patient can remove it for hygiene purposes. The fact of being positioned on these implants means the prosthesis does not move around the mouth at all.

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